Mark the evangelist, the author of the second gospel account, is symbolized by a winged lion a figure of courage and monarchy. The lion also represents jesus' resurrection (because lions were believed to sleep with open eyes, a comparison with christ in the tomb), and christ as king. This signifies that christians should be courageous on the path of salvation. Luke the evangelist, the author of the third gospel account (and the acts of the apostles), is symbolized by a winged ox or bull a figure of sacrifice, service and strength.The ox signifies that christians should be prepared to sacrifice themselves in following christ. John the evangelist, the author of the fourth gospel account, is symbolized by an eagle a figure of the sky, and believed by christian scholars to be able to look straight into the sun. John starts with an eternal overview of jesus the logos and goes on to describe many things with a "higher" christology than the other three (synoptic) gospels; it represents jesus's ascension, and christ's divine nature. This symbolizes that christians should look on eternity without flinching as they journey towards their goal of union with god. This item is made of oil and zinc.